George Birkbeck Hill. William Penn Cresson. Eli Washington Caruthers. Letters of a Family During the War for the Union, Professor Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Paul Meurice Elizabeth W Latimer. And Co Wm H Allen.
struggles of a dreamerthe battle between a dream and tradition Manual
Nelson's Legacy. Marozia - Scholar's Choice Edition. Alfred Greenwood Hales. Richard Lewis Nettleship. William Francis Mannix. Johnson Hagood The State Company. Herbert Abram Lewis. Ichabod S Spencer.
The Ministry of Song. Frances Ridley Havergal. On Patrol - Scholar's Choice Edition. Professor Benson John Lossing. William Stanley Jevons. Alfred Russel Wallace. Mor - Scholar's Choice Edition. R Hogarth Patterson. The maximum concentration of trace elements in sediment profiles was found in the samples from the sites of Pool Malebo, with the values of This site, which is characterized by intense human activities, is especially well known for the construction of numerous boats that are used for regular navigation on Congo River. However, the comparison of the metal profiles retrieved from the different sampled cores also reveals specific variations.
The results of this study point out the sediment pollution by toxic metals in the Congo River Basin. This research presents useful tools for the evaluation of sediment contamination of river -reservoir systems. Sea surface salinity SSS variability associated with the Congo River discharge is examined using Aquarius satellite-retrieved SSS data and vertical profiles of salinity measured by the Argo floats. Using the first two years of Aquarius data, a well-defined seasonal cycle is described: maximum fresh-water anomalies are found in the boreal winter and spring seasons. The fresh-water anomalies during the winter and spring seasons are significantly fresher than the winter and spring seasons.
Vertical profiles of salinity derived from the Argo floats reveal that these fresh-water anomalies can be traced to 40 meters below the sea surface. Combining the Aquarius SSS data with the Argo vertical profiles of salinity, the 3D volume of these fresh-water anomalies can be inferred and used to estimate the Congo River discharge. Reasonably good agreement is found between the Congo River discharge as observed by a stream gauge at Kinshasa and that estimated from the combined Aquarius and Argo data, indicating that Aquarius data can be used to close the fresh-water budget between the coastal ocean and the Congo River.
The precipitation minus evaporation portion of the freshwater flux is found to play a secondary role in this region. Extensive human modification and exploitation has created degraded and simplified systems lacking many of the landforms which would characterise healthy, geodiverse rivers. As awareness of geodiversity grows we must look to ways not only to conserve geodiversity but to also restore or create landforms which contribute to geodiverse environments.
River restoration, with lessons learned over the last 30 years and across multiple continents, has much to offer as an exemplar of how to understand, restore or create geodiversity. Although not mentioned explicitly, there is an implicit emphasis in the Water Framework Directive on the importance of landforms and geodiversity, with landform units and assemblages at the reach scale assumed to provide the physical template for a healthy aquatic ecosystem.
The focus on hydromorphology has increased the importance of geomorphology within river restoration programmes. The dominant paradigm is to restore landforms in order to increase habitat heterogeneity and improve biodiversity within rivers. Accordingly, this paper outlines three principal research questions: Which landforms are commonly reinstated in river restoration activities? How do these landforms function compared to natural equivalents and thus contribute to 'functional' geodiversity as compared to the 'aesthetic' geodiversity?
How does landform diversity scale from reach to catchment and contribute to larger-scale geodiversity? Data from the UK National River Restoration Inventory and the RHS are combined to assess the frequency and spatial distribution of commonly created landforms in relation to catchment type and more local context.
Irma (Lisa) Cisneros, PhD
Analysis is. Multiple plant-wax compounds record differential sources and ecosystem structure in large river catchments. Comparison to published data on other large watersheds indicates that this phenomenon is not limited to the Congo River , and that analysis of multiple plant-wax lipid classes and chain lengths can be used to better resolve local vs.
Modeling relationships between catchment attributes and river water quality in southern catchments of the Caspian Sea. Increasing land utilization through diverse forms of human activities, such as agriculture, forestry, urban growth, and industrial development, has led to negative impacts on the water quality of rivers.
All input data layers digital maps of land use, soil, and lithology were prepared using geographic information system GIS and spatial analysis. Relationships between water quality variables and catchment attributes were then examined by Spearman rank correlation tests and multiple linear regression. Stepwise approach-based multiple linear regressions were developed to examine the relationship between catchment attributes and water quality variables. The ecological and cultural functions of invertebrates in the Congo River basin. One of the entomologically richest, yet least studied, regions of Africa is the interior Congo River Basin.
Forests of this region have been called Earth's "second lung" after the Amazon Basin forests and harbor an immense diversity of invertebrates. In these tropical rainforests live people of several cultures whose lives and livelihoods are First record of epizootic ulcerative syndrome from the Upper Congo catchment : An outbreak in the Bangweulu swamps, Zambia. We report on the first outbreak of epizootic ulcerative syndrome EUS amongst wild fish populations in the Bangweulu swamps, an inland delta, in the north of Zambia during The area supports a large and diverse fish fauna related to, but distinct from, that of the Zambezi River system where EUS outbreaks have occurred since A sizeable artisanal fishery, based on extensive fish weirs, is sustained by the annual flooding of the swamps, and observations of the disease outbreak by fishermen were recorded.
Signs typical of infection with Aphanomyces invadans were observed in a number of species. Clinical observations, histology and molecular diagnostic methods were used to confirm infection with A. Several features of the wetland may have contributed to the outbreak and the annual recurrence of the disease. Modes by which the disease may have been introduced into the swamps are discussed. The outbreak is of great significance as the Bangweulu swamps drain into the Congo River in neighbouring Democratic Republic of Congo , Africa's largest drainage system with an extensive and diverse fish fauna previously unaffected by EUS.
Shift in the chemical composition of dissolved organic matter in the Congo River network. The processing of terrestrially derived dissolved organic matter DOM during downstream transport in fluvial networks is poorly understood. Here, we report a dataset of dissolved organic carbon DOC concentrations and DOM composition stable carbon isotope ratios, absorption and fluorescence properties acquired along a km transect in the middle reach of the Congo River basin.
Samples were collected in the mainstem and its tributaries during high-water HW and falling-water FW periods. DOC concentrations and DOM composition along the mainstem were found to differ between the two periods because of a reduced lateral mixing between the central water masses of the Congo River and DOM-rich waters from tributaries and also likely because of a greater photodegradation during FW as water residence time WRT increased. Although the Cuvette Centrale wetland one of the world's largest flooded forests continuously releases highly aromatic DOM in streams and rivers of the Congo Basin, the downstream transport of DOM was found to result in an along-stream gradient from aromatic to aliphatic compounds.
The characterization of DOM through parallel factor analysis PARAFAC suggests that this transition results from 1 the losses of aromatic compounds by photodegradation and 2 the production of aliphatic compounds by biological reworking of terrestrial DOM. Finally, this study highlights the critical importance of the river -floodplain connectivity in tropical rivers in controlling DOM biogeochemistry at a large spatial scale and suggests that the degree of DOM processing during downstream transport is a function of landscape characteristics and WRT.
Which catchment characteristics control the temporal dependence structure of daily river flows? A hydrological classification system would provide information about the dominant processes in the catchment enabling information to be transferred between catchments. Currently there is no widely-agreed upon system for classifying river catchments. This paper developed a novel approach to assess the influence that catchment characteristics have on the precipitation-to-flow relationship, using a catchment classification based on the average temporal dependence structure in daily river flow data over the period to Temporal dependence in river flow data is driven by the flow pathways, connectivity and storage within the catchment.
Temporal dependence was analysed by creating temporally averaged semi-variograms for a set of near-natural catchments in order to prevent direct anthropogenic disturbances influencing the results distributed throughout the UK. Cluster analysis, using the variogram, classified the catchments into four well defined clusters driven by the interaction of catchment characteristics, predominantly characteristics which influence the precipitation-to-flow relationship.
Geology, depth to gleyed layer in soils, slope of the catchment and the percentage of arable land were significantly different between the clusters. Arable land is correlated with several other variables, hence is a proxy indicating the residence time of the water in the catchment. Finally, quadratic discriminant analysis was used to show that a model with five catchment characteristics is able to predict the temporal dependence structure for un-gauged catchments.
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This work demonstrates that a variogram-based approach is a powerful and flexible methodology for grouping catchments based on the precipitation-to-flow relationship which could be applied to any set of catchments with a relatively complete. Satellite-based estimates of surface water dynamics in the Congo River Basin. Becker, M. Santos; Prigent, C.
In the Congo River Basin CRB , due to the lack of contemporary in situ observations, there is a limited understanding of the large-scale variability of its present-day hydrologic components and their link with climate. In this context, remote sensing observations provide a unique opportunity to better characterize those dynamics. Analyzing the Global Inundation Extent Multi-Satellite GIEMS time series, we first show that surface water extent SWE exhibits marked seasonal patterns, well distributed along the major rivers and their tributaries, and with two annual maxima located: i in the lakes region of the Lwalaba sub-basin and ii in the "Cuvette Centrale", including Tumba and Mai-Ndombe Lakes.
Origins, seasonality, and fluxes of organic matter in the Congo River. Spencer, Robert G. Even though the Congo exhibits an extremely stable intra-annual discharge regime, seasonal variability in OM composition was evident. DOM appears predominantly derived from vascular plant inputs with greater relative contribution during the rising limb and peak in discharge associated with the major November-December discharge maximum. During the study period September to November the Congo exported The Congo is also 2.
Spatial and seasonal dynamics of total suspended sediment and organic carbon species in the Congo River. The Congo Zaire River , the world's second largest river in terms both of water discharges and of drainage area after the Amazon River , has remained to date in a near-pristine state. There is a marked difference between specific fluxes, threefold higher in the forest basins than in the savannah basins. The computation of inputs to the Atlantic Ocean demonstrates that the Congo is responsible for These proportions may double when considering only world rivers discharging into the open ocean.
Don't fight the site: three geomorphic considerations in catchment -scale river rehabilitation planning. Three geomorphic considerations that underpin the design and implementation of realistic and strategic river conservation and rehabilitation programs that work with the nature are outlined. First, the importance of appreciating the inherent diversity of river forms and processes is discussed. Second, river dynamics are appraised, framing the contemporary behavioral regime of a reach in relation to system evolution to explain changes to river character and behavior over time.
Third, the trajectory of a reach is framed in relation to downstream patterns of river types, analyzing landscape connectivity at the catchment scale to interpret geomorphic river recovery potential. The application of these principles is demonstrated using extensive catchment -scale analyses of geomorphic river responses to human disturbance in the Bega and Upper Hunter catchments in southeastern Australia.
Differing implications for reach- and catchment -scale rehabilitation planning prompt the imperative that management practices work with nature rather than strive to 'fight the site. Role of river bank erosion in sediment budgets of catchments within the Loire river basin France. Quantifying volumes of sediments produced on hillslopes or in channels and transported or stored within river systems is necessary to establish sediment budgets. If research efforts on hillslope erosion processes have led to a relatively good understanding and quantification of local sources, in-channel processes remain poorly understood and quasi inexistent in global budgets.
However, profound landuse changes and agricultural practices have altered river functioning, caused river bank instability and stream incision. During the past decades in France, river channelization has been perfomed extensively to allow for new agricultural practices to take place. Starting from a recent study on the quantification of sediment fluxes for catchments within the Loire river basin Gay et al.
The emphasis of this study is on river bank erosion and how bank erosion contributes to global budgets. A model of bank retreat is developed for the entire Loire river basin. In general, our results show that bank retreat is on average quite low with approximately 1 cm.
Our results corroborate those found by Landemaine et al. From this first step, quantification of volumes of sediment eroded from banks and available for transport should be calculated and integrated in sediment budgets to allow for a better understanding of basin functioning. Gay A. Landemaine V. Recent morphological evolution of a headwater stream in agricultural context after channelization in the Ligoire river France.
Carr, A. We present the results of a summer field campaign by members of the Congo River users Hydraulics and Morphology CRuHM project, and a subsequent reach-scale hydraulic modelling study on the Congo 's main stem. Sonar bathymetry, ADCP transects, and water surface elevation data have been collected along the Congo 's heavily multi-threaded middle reach, which exhibits complex in-channel hydraulic processes that are not well understood.
To model the entire basin's hydrodynamics, these in-channel hydraulic processes must be parameterised since it is not computationally feasible to represent them explicitly. Furthermore, recent research suggests that relative to other large global rivers , in-channel flows on the Congo represent a relatively large proportion of total flow through the river -floodplain system. We therefore regard sufficient representation of in-channel hydraulic processes as a Congo River hydrodynamic research priority. To enable explicit representation of in-channel hydraulics, we develop a reach-scale 70 km , high resolution hydraulic model.
Simulation of flow through individual channel threads provides new information on flow depths and velocities, and will be used to inform the parameterisation of a broader basin-scale hydrodynamic model. The basin-scale model will ultimately be used to investigate floodplain fluxes, flood wave attenuation, and the impact of future hydrological change scenarios on basin hydrodynamics. This presentation will focus on the methodology we use to develop a reach-scale bathymetric DEM. The bathymetry of only a small proportion of channel threads can realistically be captured, necessitating some estimation of the bathymetry of channels not surveyed.
We explore different approaches to this bathymetry estimation, and the extent to which it influences hydraulic model predictions. Vulnerability of schools to floods in Nyando River catchment , Kenya. This paper assesses the vulnerability of schools to floods in the Nyando River catchment 3, km 2 in western Kenya and identifies measures needed to reduce this vulnerability. It surveys schools in the lower reaches, where flooding is a recurrent phenomenon.
Vulnerability to floods is due to a lack of funds, poor building standards, local topography, soil types and inadequate drainage. The Constituencies Development Fund CDF , established in , provides financial support to cover school construction and reconstruction costs; CDF Committees are expected to adopt school building standards. In an effort to promote safe and resilient construction and retrofitting to withstand floods, this paper presents vulnerability reduction strategies and recommendations for incorporating minimum standards in the on-going Primary School Infrastructure Programme Design.
Inorganic and organic carbon spatial variability in the Congo River during high waters December Borges, Alberto V. Rivers are important components of the global carbon cycle, as they transport terrestrial organic matter from the land to the sea, and emit CO2 to the atmosphere. In contrast with south American rivers , very little information is available for African rivers on their carbon flows and stocks, in particular the Congo river , the second largest river in the World in terms of freshwater discharge km3 yr-1 and in terms of drainage basin 3.
The pCO2 dynamic range was high ranging from minimum values of ppm in white waters tributaries higher turbidity, conductivity and O2, lower DOC , up to maximal values of 18, ppm in blackwaters tributaries lower turbidity, conductivity and O2, higher DOC. In the mainstem, very strong horizontal cross-section gradients were imposed by the presence of blackwaters close to the riverbanks and the presence of whitewaters in the middle of the river.
In the mainstem, a distinct horizontal longitudinal pattern was observed with pCO2 increasing, and conductivity and turbidity decreasing downstream. Skills of General Circulation and Earth System Models in reproducing streamflow to the ocean: the case of Congo river.
Utumishi • Governtment Directory 2012 Final
Although the importance of water resources in the context of climate change, it is still difficult to correctly simulate the freshwater cycle over the land via General Circulation and Earth System Models GCMs and ESMs. Existing efforts from the Climate Model Intercomparison Project 5 CMIP5 were mainly devoted to the validation of atmospheric variables like temperature and precipitation, with low attention to discharge. Our findings suggest how most of models appear overestimating the streamflow in terms of seasonal cycle, especially in the late winter and spring, while overestimation and variability across models are lower in late summer.
Weighted ensemble means are also calculated, based on simulations' performances given by several metrics, showing some improvements of results. Although simulated inter-monthly and inter-annual percent anomalies do not appear significantly different from those in observed data, when translated into well consolidated indicators of drought attributes frequency, magnitude, timing, duration , usually adopted for more immediate communication to stakeholders and decision makers, such anomalies can be misleading.
These inconsistencies produce incorrect assessments towards water management planning and infrastructures e. Hydrologic control of carbon cycling and aged carbon discharge in the Congo River basin. The age of organic material discharged by rivers provides information about its sources and carbon cycling processes within watersheds.
Although elevated ages in fluvially transported organic matter are usually explained by erosion of soils and sedimentary deposits, it is commonly assumed that mainly young organic material is discharged from flat tropical watersheds due to their extensive plant cover and rapid carbon turnover. Here we present compound-specific radiocarbon data of terrigenous organic fractions from a sedimentary archive offshore the Congo River , in conjunction with molecular markers for methane-producing land cover reflecting wetland extent.
We find that the Congo River has been discharging aged organic matter for several thousand years, with apparently increasing ages from the mid- to the Late Holocene. This suggests that aged organic matter in modern samples is concealed by radiocarbon from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. By comparison to indicators for past rainfall changes we detect a systematic control of organic matter sequestration and release by continental hydrology, mediating temporary carbon storage in wetlands.
As aridification also leads to exposure and rapid remineralization of large amounts of previously stored labile organic matter, we infer that this process may cause a profound direct climate feedback that is at present underestimated in carbon cycle assessments. How did bonobos come to range south of the congo river? Reconsideration of the divergence of Pan paniscus from other Pan populations. While investigating the genetic structure in wild bonobos, 1 we realized that the widely accepted scenario positing that the Pleistocene appearance of the Congo River separated the common ancestor of chimpanzees Pan troglodytes and bonobos P.
We explored the origin of bonobos using a broader biogeographical perspective by examining local faunas in the central African region. The submarine Congo River sediments and paleotopography of central Africa show that the Congo River has functioned as a geographical barrier for the last 34 million years. This evidence allows us to hypothesize that when the river was first formed, the ancestor of bonobos did not inhabit the current range of the species on the left bank of the Congo River but that, during rare times when the Congo River discharge decreased during the Pleistocene, one or more founder populations of ancestral Pan paniscus crossed the river to its left bank.
The proposed scenario for formation of the Congo River and the corridor hypothesis for an ancestral bonobo population is key to understanding the distribution of great apes and their evolution. River discharge is a prerequisite for an understanding of flood hazard and water resource management, yet we have poor knowledge of it, especially over remote basins. Previous studies have successfully used a classic hydraulic geometry, at-many-stations hydraulic geometry AMHG , and Manning's equation to estimate the river discharge.
Theoretical bases of these empirical methods were introduced by Leopold and Maddock and Manning , and those have been long used in the field of hydrology, water resources, and geomorphology. However, the methods to estimate the river discharge from remotely sensed data essentially require bathymetric information of the river or are not applicable to braided rivers. Furthermore, the methods used in the previous studies adopted assumptions of river conditions to be steady and uniform. Consequently, those methods have limitations in estimating the river discharge in complex and unsteady flow in nature.
In this study, we developed a novel approach to estimating river discharges by applying the weak learner method here termed WLQ , which is one of the ensemble methods using multiple classifiers, to the remotely sensed measurements of water levels from Envisat altimetry, effective river widths from PALSAR images, and multi-temporal surface water slopes over a part of the mainstem Congo. It is expected that our method can provide improved estimates of river discharges in complex and unsteady flow conditions based on the data-driven prediction model by machine learning i.
WLQ , even when the bathymetric data is not available or in case of the braided rivers. Human impacts on river water quality- comparative research in the catchment areas of the Tone River and the Mur River -. Human activities in river basin affect river water quality as water discharges into river with pollutant after we use it. By detecting pollutants source, pathway, and influential factor of human activities, it will be possible to consider proper river basin management.
So as to clarify land use contribution and climate condition, comparison of Japanese and European river basin area has been made. This study treats data collection, modelling for the Tone River in Japan, and comparative analysis for these two river basins. The estimation of the nutrient emissions was carried out for 11 different sub catchment areas covering the Tone River Basin for the time period to Urban area was also important emission pathway.
Human effect is observed in urban structure and agricultural activity. Water supply and sewer system make urban water cycle with pipeline structure. Excess evapotranspiration in arable land is also influential in water cycle. Even though N surplus reduction does not show drastic impact on N emission, it is of importance to reduce excess of fertilization and to encourage effective agricultural activity. Lamprologus markerti, new species, is readily distinguished from L. Further, L. Pathogens are an ongoing issue for catchment water management and quantifying their transport, loss and potential impacts at key locations, such as water abstractions for public supply and bathing sites, is an important aspect of catchment and coastal management.
The Integrated Catchment Model INCA has been adapted to model the sources and sinks of pathogens and to capture the dominant dynamics and processes controlling pathogens in catchments. The model simulates the stores of pathogens in soils, sediments, rivers and groundwaters and can account for diffuse inputs of pathogens from agriculture, urban areas or atmospheric deposition.
The model also allows for point source discharges from intensive livestock units or from sewage treatment works or any industrial input to river systems. Model equations are presented and the new pathogens model has been applied to the River Thames in order to assess total coliform TC responses under current and projected future land use. A Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis indicates that the input coliform estimates from agricultural sources and decay rates are the crucial parameters controlling pathogen behaviour.
Whilst there are a number of uncertainties associated with the model that should be accounted for, INCA-Pathogens potentially provides a useful tool to inform policy decisions and manage pathogen loading in river systems. Published by Elsevier B. Rivers and wetlands are very important for ecological habitats, and it plays a key role in providing a source of greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4. The floodplains ecosystems depend on the process between the vegetation and flood characteristics.
The water level is a prerequisite to an understanding of terrestrial water storage and discharge. Despite the lack of in situ data over the Congo Basin, which is the world's third largest in size 3. However, the water level estimation of the Congo River remains poorly quantified due to the sparse orbital spacing of radar altimeters. Hence, we essentially have limited information only over the sparsely distributed the so-called "virtual stations".
The backscattering coefficients from SAR images have been successfully used to distinguish different vegetation types, to monitor flood conditions, and to access soil moistures over the wetlands. We also present preliminary estimates of the river. Extensive wetlands and swamps expand along the Congo River and its tributaries.
These wetlands store water and attenuate flood wave during high water season. Substantial dissolved and solid substances are also transported with the water flux, influencing geochemical environment and biogeochemistry processes both in the wetlands and the river. To understand the role of the wetlands in partitioning the surface water and the accompanied material movement, water storage change is one of the most fundamental observations. The water flow through the wetlands is complex, affected by topography, vegetation resistance, and hydraulic variations.
Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar InSAR has been successfully used to map relative water level changes in the vegetated wetlands with high spatial resolution. Integrated analysis of InSAR and Envisat altimetry data has shown that proximal floodplain with higher water level change has lower elevation during dry season. This indicates that the spatial variation of water level change in the Congo floodplain is mostly controlled by floodplain bathymetry. A method based on water level and bathymetry model is proposed to estimate water storage change.
The bathymetry model is composed of 1 elevation at the intersection of the floodplain and the river and 2 floodplain bathymetry slope. We first constructed the floodplain bathymetry by selecting an Envisat altimetry profile during low water season to estimate elevation at the intersection of the floodplain and the river. Floodplain bathymetry slope was estimated using InSAR measurements. It is expected that our new method can estimate water storage change with higher temporal resolution corresponding to altimeter's repeat cycle.
In addition, given the multi-decadal archive of satellite altimetry measurements. Velocity mapping in the Lower Congo River : a first look at the unique bathymetry and hydrodynamics of Bulu Reach. The lower Congo River is one of the deepest, most powerful, and most biologically diverse stretches of river on Earth. Much of the lower Congo is a mystery from a hydraulics perspective. However, this stretch of the river is a hotbed for biologists who are documenting evolution in action within the diverse, but isolated, fish populations.
Biologists theorize that isolation of fish populations within the lower Congo is due to barriers presented by flow structure and bathymetry. To investigate this theory, scientists from the U. Geological Survey and American Museum of Natural History teamed up with an expedition crew from National Geographic in to map flow velocity and bathymetry within target reaches in the lower Congo River using acoustic Doppler current profilers ADCPs and echo sounders.
Simultaneous biological and water quality sampling was also completed. This paper presents some preliminary results from this expedition, specifically with regard to the velocity structure andbathymetry. Results show that the flow in the bedrock controlled Bulu reach of the lower Congo is highly energetic.
Turbulent and secondary flow structures can span the full depth of flow up to m , while coherent bank-to-bank cross-channel flow structures are absent. An initial investigation into the organic matter biogeochemistry of the Congo River. The Congo River , which drains pristine tropical forest and savannah and is the second largest exporter of terrestrial carbon to the ocean, was sampled in early to investigate organic matter OM dynamics in this historically understudied river basin.
Distinct compositional and isotopic differences were observed between all fractions. The modern radiocarbon ages for DOM belie a degraded lignin compositional signature i. CPOM appears to be well preserved higher vascular plant material as evidenced by its modern. Simulation of irrigation effect on water cycle in Yellow River catchment , China.
The Yellow River is 5, km long with a catchment area of , km2 if the Erdos inner flow area is included. This river catchment is divided between the upper region length: km, area: , km2 from the headwater to Lanzhou in Gansu province, the middle region length: 1, km, area: , km2 from Lanzhou to Huayuankou in Henan province, and the lower region length: km, area: 22, km2 from Huayuankou to the estuary.
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