Many dams in the district was washed away".
In the river broke loose again; the Cape Government Railways oversaw a massive expansion in the Cape Colony's railway system in the s, though the route to Victoria West was only completed in The railway connection spurred economic development and the town's demographic growth over the following decades; the railway line from Cape Town was under construction to Kimberley and as it had reached Beaufort West, fervent hopes were expressed that Victoria West would be the next major halt.
The line was carried about eight miles away, so as to traverse the farms belonging to several members of the government; as a result the line reached the newly built station at Victoria West Road in It was not until In the early twentieth century the increased use of motor cars meant that the Karoo was no longer as isolated as it used to be. A census in showed that Victoria West had up to motor cars, including 2 busses and 30 motorbikes. The town has a small airport, used only by light aircraft.
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Until the s when they stopped operating piston engined airliners such as the Douglas DC-3 , it was a refueling stop for South African Airways between Cape Town and destinations to the north. By , the Victoria West Airport was established and was used by Imperial Airways as a stopover to Cape Town; this led to the first of three of the modern air control towers built here. Shortly afterwards, a waiting room was built for passengers, a new building was built in Large planes no longer land here. In February , the agreement of 66 years between Victoria West and the Shell Oil Company to supply avgas came to an end.
During the s a number of local institutions came into existence, among them the Victoria West Public Library. Andries P. Olivier from Ysterkoppe died in and left R8 in his will for the establishment of a new library; the new library is contiguous with the museum. The new building was opened in 26 October Presently there are two librari. It evolved from the Dutch vernacular of South Holland spoken by the Dutch settlers of what is now South Africa, where it began to develop distinguishing characteristics in the course of the 18th century.
Hence, it is a daughter language of Dutch, was referred to as " Cape Dutch " or "kitchen Dutch". However, it is variously described as a creole or as a creolised language; the term is derived from Dutch Afrikaans-Hollands meaning "African Dutch". Therefore, differences with Dutch lie in the more analytic-type morphology and grammar of Afrikaans, a spelling that expresses Afrikaans pronunciation rather than standard Dutch.
There is a large degree of mutual intelligibility between the two languages—especially in written form. With about 7 million native speakers in South Africa, or It has the widest geographical and racial distribution of all the 11 official languages of South Africa, is spoken and understood as a second or third language, it is the majority language of the western half of South Africa—the provinces of the Northern Cape and Western Cape—and the first language of In addition, many native speakers of Bantu languages and English speak Afrikaans as a second language, it is taught with about One reason for the expansion of Afrikaans is its development in the public realm: it is used in newspapers, radio programs, TV, several translations of the Bible have been published since the first one was completed in In neighbouring Namibia, Afrikaans is spoken as a second language and used as a lingua franca , while as a native language it is spoken in Both Afrikaans and German are recognised regional languages in Namibia, although only English has official status within the government.
Estimates of the total number of Afrikaans speakers range between 23 million; the term is derived from the Dutch term Afrikaans-Hollands meaning "African Dutch".
Afrikaans has a more regular morphology and spelling. There is a degree of mutual intelligibility between the two languages in written form. Afrikaans acquired some lexical and syntactical borrowings from other languages such as Malay , Khoisan languages and Bantu languages, Afrikaans has been influenced by South African English. Dutch speakers are confronted with fewer non-cognates when listening to Afrikaans than the other way round. Mutual intelligibility thus tends to be asymmetrical, as it is easier for Dutch speakers to understand Afrikaans than for Afrikaans speakers to understand Dutch.
In general, mutual intelligibility between Dutch and Afrikaans is better than between Dutch and Frisian or between Danish and Swedish ; the South African poet writer Breyten Breytenbach , attempting to visualize the language distance for anglophones once remarked that the differences between Dutch and Afrikaans are comparable to those between the Received Pronunciation and Southern American English. The Afrikaans language arose in the Dutch Cape Colony , through a gradual divergence from European Dutch dialects, during the course of the 18th century; as early as the midth century and as as the midth century, Afrikaans was known in standard Dutch as a "kitchen language", lacking the prestige accorded, for example by the educational system in Africa, to languages spoken outside Africa.
Other early epithets setting apart Kaaps Hollands as putatively beneath official Dutch standards included geradbraakt and onbeschaafd Hollands, as well as verkeerd Nederlands. Den Besten theorizes that modern Standard Afrikaans derives from two sources: Cape Dutch , a direct transplantation of European Dutch to southern Africa, and'Hottentot Dutch', a pidgin that descended from'Foreigner Talk' and from the Dutch pidgin spoken by slaves, via a hypothetical Dutch creole.
Thus in his view Afrikaans is neither a creole nor a direct descendant of Dutch, but a fusion of two transmission pathways. A relative majority of the first settlers whose descendants today are the Afrikaners were from the United Provinces , though up to one-sixth of the community was of French Huguenot origin, a seventh from Germany.
African and Asian workers and slaves contributed to the development of Afrikaans; the slave population was made up of people from East Africa , West Africa , India and the Dutch East Indies. A number were indigenous Khoisan people, who were valued as i. Romance novel Although the genre is old, the romance novel or romantic novel discussed in this article is the mass-market version.
Novels of this type of genre fiction place their primary focus on the relationship and romantic love between two people, must have an "emotionally satisfying and optimistic ending. Romance novels are read by women; the term romance is applied to a type of novel defined by Walter Scott as "a fictitious narrative in prose or verse. Other precursors can be found in the literary fiction of the 18th and 19th centuries, including Samuel Richardson's sentimental novel Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded and the novels of Jane Austen. Austen inspired Georgette Heyer , the British author of historical romance set around the time Austen lived, as well as detective fiction.
Heyer's first romance novel, The Black Moth , was set in ; the British company Mills and Boon began releasing escapist fiction for women in the s. Their books were sold in North America by Harlequin Enterprises Ltd , which began direct marketing to readers and allowing mass-market merchandisers to carry the books. According to the Romance Writers of America , the main plot of a mass-market romance novel must revolve about the two people as they develop romantic love for each other and work to build a relationship.
Both the conflict and the climax of the novel should be directly related to that core theme of developing a romantic relationship, although the novel can contain subplots that do not relate to the main characters' romantic love. Furthermore, a romance novel must have an "emotionally satisfying and optimistic ending. Bestselling author Nora Roberts sums up the genre, saying: "The books are about the celebration of falling in love and emotion and commitment, all of those things we want.
Some romance novel authors and readers believe the genre has additional restrictions, from plot considerations, to avoiding themes. Other disagreements have centered on the firm requirement for a happy ending. While the majority of romance novels meet the stricter criteria, there are many books considered to be romance novels that deviate from these rules.
Therefore, the general definition, as embraced by the RWA and publishers, includes only the focus on a developing romantic relationship and an optimistic ending. Escapism is important.
Ena Murray - WikiVisually
There are no specific restrictions on what can not be included in a romance novel. Controversial subjects are addressed in romance novels, including topics such as date rape, domestic violence and disability. The combination of time frame and plot elements does, help a novel to fit into one of several romance subgenres. Despite the numerous possibilities this framework allows, many people in the mainstream press claim that "all seem to read alike.
For instance, some believe that all romance novels are similar to those of Danielle Steel , featuring rich, glamorous people traveling to exotic locations. Many romance readers disagree that Steel writes romance at all, considering her novels more mainstream fiction. Mass-market romance novels are sometimes referred to as "smut" or female pornography , are the most popular form of modern erotica for women.
While some romance novels do contain more erotic acts, in other romance novels the characters do no more than kiss chastely; the romance genre runs the spectrum between these two extremes. While this article is about the mass-market form of love romance novels, the genre of works of extended prose fiction dealing with romantic love existed in classical Greece ; the titles of over twenty such ancient Greek romance novels are known, but most of them have only survived in an incomplete, fragmentary form.
Precursors of the modern popular love-romance can be found in the sentimental novel Pamela, or Virtue. Pretoria Pretoria is a city in the northern part of Gauteng province in South Africa. It straddles the Apies River and has spread eastwards into the foothills of the Magaliesberg mountains, it is one of the country's three capital cities, serving as the seat of the administrative branch of government, of foreign embassies to South Africa.
Pretoria has a reputation for being an academic city with three universities, the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research and the Human Sciences Research Council ; the city hosts the National Research Foundation and the South African Bureau of Standards making the city a hub for research. Pretoria is the central part of the Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality , formed by the amalgamation of several former local authorities including Centurion and Soshanguve. There have been proposals to change the name of Pretoria itself to Tshwane, the proposed name change has caused some public controversy.
Pretoria is named after the Voortrekker leader Andries Pretorius , within South Africa sometimes called the " Jacaranda City" due to the thousands of jacaranda trees planted in its streets and gardens. Pretoria was founded in by Marthinus Pretorius , a leader of the Voortrekkers, who named it after his father Andries Pretorius and chose a spot on the banks of the "Apies rivier" to be the new capital of the South African Republic.
The elder Pretorius had become a national hero of the Voortrekkers after his victory over Dingane and the Zulus in the Battle of Blood River ; the elder Pretorius negotiated the Sand River Convention , in which the UK acknowledged the independence of the Transvaal. It became the capital of the South African Republic on 1 May ; the founding of Pretoria as the capital of the South African Republic can be seen as marking the end of the Boers ' settlement movements of the Great Trek. During the First Boer War , the city was besieged by Republican forces in December and March ; the peace treaty which ended the war was signed in Pretoria on 3 August at the Pretoria Convention.
The city surrendered to British forces under Frederick Roberts on 5 June and the conflict was ended in Pretoria with the signing of the Peace of Vereeniging on 31 May at Melrose House. Pretoria became the administrative capital of the whole of South Africa, with Cape Town the legislative capital and Bloemfontein served as the judicial capital. Between and , the city was the capital of the province of Transvaal.
On 14 October , Pretoria achieved official city status; when South Africa became a republic in , Pretoria remained its administrative capital. Pretoria is situated 55 km north-northeast of Johannesburg in the northeast of South Africa, in a transitional belt between the plateau of the Highveld to the south and the lower-lying Bushveld to the north.
It lies at an altitude of about 1, m above sea level, in a warm, fertile valley, surrounded by the hills of the Magaliesberg range. Pretoria has a humid subtropical climate with long hot rainy summers and short cool to cold, dry winters; the city experiences the typical winters of South Africa with cold, clear nights and mild to moderately warm days.
This is rather high, considering the city's high altitude of about 1, metres, is due to its sheltered valley position, which acts as a heat trap and cuts it off from cool southerly and south-easterly air masses for much of the year. Rain is chiefly concentrated in the summer months, with drought conditions prevailing over the winter months, when frosts may be sharp.
Snowfall is an rare event. The year was one of the wettest on record for the city. A total of mm fell up with mm recorded in this month alone. In Pretoria saw its worst drought since During the 33 years that she wrote full-time, titles appeared from her pen. She acquired renown mainly for her romance novels , but also wrote detective fiction , espionage fiction and adventure novels through which she reached a wide audience.
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In addition she wrote spiritual literature and produced a volume of poetry. She has been described has the "most read writer in Afrikaans". Some of her books appeared in large print, aiding the visually impaired. Some were recorded by Pionier School , a special needs school in Worcester , while others were recorded by Bandhulp vir Blindes in braille en band an institution assisting the blind.
Ena Murray was born in the small Karoo town of Loxton. She was the second of three daughters of the local medical practitioner, Dr. She received her schooling at Loxton and the neighbouring town of Victoria West. Verified Purchase. Ena Murray's books are the best for relaxing whilst you are reading. In her omnibus collections she deals with three stories completely differing from each other. I would definitely suggest her book to my sister, who is a devoted fan of Ena Murray and then to everyone who still enjoys reading Afrikaans.
Mens kan jou geheel en al inleef met die karakters se omstandighede. Baie goed geskryf en het betrekking tot en met vandag se lewe in SA. Regtig leesstof wat jou aan die einde laat voel jy het jou tyd gemors. Go to Amazon. Back to top. Get to Know Us. Audible Download Audio Books. DPReview Digital Photography.